This volume documents the multifaceted conflicts and contestations around water in Northeast India, analyses their causes and consequences, and includes expert recommendations through 18 case studies. It fills a major gap in the subject by examining wide-ranging issues such as cultural and anthropological dimensions of damming rivers in the Northeast and Eastern Himalayas; seismic surveys, oil extractions, and water conflicts; discontent over water quality and drinking water; floods, river bank erosion, embankments; water policy; transboundary water conflicts; and hydropower development. It also discusses the alleged Chinese efforts to divert the Brahmaputra River.
यह रिपोर्ट "महानदी नदी बेसिन में जल आवंटन और उपयोग: कृषि और औद्योगिक क्षेत्र का एक अध्ययन" का एक संक्षिप्त संस्करण है जिसका अनुवाद हिंदी में किया गया है। यह रिपोर्ट पानी के आवंटन और दो सबसे बड़े क्षेत्रों- कृषि और उद्योग में उपयोग के बारे में बात करती है। वर्तमान जल संसाधनों और जल नियोजन पर इन दोनों क्षेत्रों के निहितार्थ को समझने का प्रयास, आवंटन के कारण बढ़ते पानी के संघर्ष और इन मुद्दों को कैसे न्यायसंगत और टिकाऊ ढंग से सुलझाया जा सकता है।
The promotion of a ‘generic’ policy for groundwater sourcing for different types of uses across all aquifer settings has led to competition between users and different uses, frequently causing groundwater over exploitation, quality depletion and damage to eco-systems. The commonly followed approach in India continues to focus on ‘exploring and sourcing groundwater’. A fundamental assumption of this policy is the uniform availability of groundwater for irrigation across large swaths of India’s ‘geo-diverse’ landscape and a variety of hydrogeological settings. Through this report, an outline of the status of groundwater, and scenarios of competition and conflicts around groundwater, in the Mahanadi river basin has been presented.
The integrated report on water management of the Mahanadi basin is a compilation and analysis of the research done in the Mahanadi basin for the last four years, especially in the context of the three identified themes. there are water allocation and water use in the agriculture and industrial sector, environmental flow in river basin management and rising competition and conflicts around groundwater. The report calls for a holistic integrated approach, based on the principles of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Framework and give suggestions as how the waters of the Mahanadi, which is still in better condition, as compared to other river basins in India, can be managed in a sustainable, equitable, participative and democratic manner.
The fact that economic development has failed to secure the basic domestic and livelihood water requirements of many and has, in many ways, threatened local sources of water across the country, is of grave concern. It has also led to number of conflicts around water. Engaging with these conflicts means understanding the drivers of conflict, whether they are climatic: for instance, scarcity of water in times of drought; economic: higher revenue oriented uses of water gaining precedence over its primary use or pollution rendering water sources unusable; social: differences between social groups revealing themselves overtly over water as a resource; or, political: governments declaring dubious projects seeking political mileage. This report talks about the allocation of water and use in the two largest sectors— agriculture and industry. The study is an attempt to understand the implication of these two sectors on the existing water resources and water planning, the rising water conflicts due to allocations and how these issues could be resolved in an equitable and sustainable manner.
India’s growing groundwater dependency is exerting severe pressures on groundwater resources across the country’s diverse aquifer settings. Stressed groundwater resources are not just about depleting and contaminated aquifers but also about a common pool resource coming under competition, leading to conflict between users. Competition for groundwater is observed not only within agriculture, domestic, industrial and ecosystem users but also between the users within each of these sectors. The characteristics of groundwater competition and conflict are not sufficiently researched, discussed and debated as part of the larger groundwater management and governance effort in India. This report could serve as a beginning to address this gap so that discussions on groundwater management and governance will include aspects of social fairness and justice along with the typical buzzwords of efficiency, equity and sustainability of groundwater resources.
Water for sustaining and regenerating ecosystems seems to be the last priority in water use. Yet, our future will depend on how well we protect our river basins. This report has attempted to put together some of the important concepts , methods and concerns related to implementation of environmental flows (e-flows) in India. The report draws from existing literature, experiences of e-flows assessments in India till date, and the Forum’s own work in the Mahanadi basin and its Hasdeo basin in particular. At the same time, this report also offers important broader learning for implementation of e-flows in other river basins in India.
Through this report, a situation analysis of the Hasdeo river basin in the context of environmental flows in presented. The basin profile is presented which includes the key parameters like the physiology, geology, hydrology, ecology, demography, landuse, water quality, and large scale interventions in form dams, barrages, industries and coal mines and their impacts on Hasdeo river and the ecosystems and livelihoods dependent on it.
The groundwater scenario is Kerala is rapidly changing. Not only the quantity but quality is also of serious concern. It is in this context that Kerala State Centre of the Policy Dialogue on Water Conflicts in India approached Dr. Ajaykumar Varma, a senior scientist at National Centre of Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram to bring out the critical issues on groundwater resource and governance in Kerala. This publication is a technical report on the present status, critical issues on the groundwater in Kerala and also gives recommendations on how to address these issues.
This publication is an attempt to briefly profile the basin in terms of the key parameters like the physiology, geology, hydrogeology, demography, water resources and uses, land use, cropping pattern, mineral resources, fisheries, and policy and institutional regime. It also discusses some emerging critical issues in the basin like the environmental flows, water quality, inter-sectoral allocation, inter-state water sharing and conflicts. The publication aims to help the readers to develop a baseline understanding of the Mahanadi river basin and its issues.
The book documents about 63 case studies on different types of water conflicts across India. This includes conflicts between uses and users at different levels, ranging from individual systems to sharing of waters among riparians in inter-state and international river basins. Conflicts remain an endemic feature of the water sector. The book is an effort to contribute to an informed public debate on water conflicts in India, with a possibility of their resolution too.
The output is a result of the joint initiative on Campaign around Right to Water and Sanitation in India between Forum and WaterAid India. The content of Right to Water is developed based on the series of workshops conducted in India in different parts of the country and the feedback received from the participants. The booklet talks about the legal and institutional arrangement that exists within India and what arrangements are required in order to ensure that everyone has access to basic needs of water. Forum has also proposed a tentative model which talks about the water tariff and ensuring a ‘social minimum to all’.
The compendium comprises of four different sector reform initiatives on domestic water and sanitation in India. There are numerous sector reform initiatives taking place in the water sector to ensure that equal domestic water is available to everyone. Some of these initiatives are taking place at local scale and some by the central. However, the implications of these initiatives vary depending on the geographical scale, the institutional set-up, participation of the people and the water tariff associated. The reform initiatives highlighted in this compendium are, schemes proposed by the Government, public-private partnership and public-public partnership.
This is a compendium of 11 case studies, specifically talking about the conflicts related to drinking water and sanitation in India. Water for drinking and sanitation are the basic needs of human beings, however, these needs often gets sidelined in the context of other uses, especially when water is required for livelihood. Again there is a question, should the basic needs be met, especially the people in the urban areas, by compromising the needs of the rural people? The report is an attempt to look at the finer nuances of water allocations and the conflicts arising out of it.
The book is the result of Forum’s continuous effort to document various types of water conflicts across India. This compendium comprises of 18 case studies in the Northeast part of India. The process of documentation has been instrumental in creating awareness and networking, which the Forum believes is a valuable asset for any grassroot work on water conflicts. The Northeast region of India is rich in ethnic diversity and has abundant natural resources. The case studies capture the threat on the water resources and ecological security due to large number of hydropower projects planned in the region. Moreover, the indigenous people feel insecure, as they are not involved in the decision-making process.
This is a unique report where an attempt has been made to look at floods from the point of view of conflicts and contestation-an issue that has remained unexplored till date. This initiative was taken to understand, disseminate knowledge, and initiate a dialogue around flood induced conflicts, which shall help to devise better strategies to deal with floods and their impacts. The compendium includes 11 case studies which capture the issue of embankments and floods, reservoir operations, interstate disputes, floods in cities, rehabilitation related conflicts and floods in areas of low rainfall like Rajasthan. Case studies are covered from almost all over India.
This is the action taken report, based on the information, stakeholder meetings, Focussed Grooup Discussions conducted to resolve the conflicts between the farmers of the Hirakud command area and the Odisha Government about water allocation from the Hirakud dam. The Odisha state Resource Centre was formed with the objective to bring together local civil society groups, social movements and other stakeholders and understand the interconnected conflicts around Hirakud dam. The report puts forward certain recommendations to resolve the ongoing conflicts.
This report talks about the action research study undertaken by the Chalakudy Puzha Samrakshana Samithy and Forum. The plan to construct a large dam across the Chalakudy river in Kerala triggered conflict and this was strongly opposed by the Local Panchayats. The proposal if implemented would have altered the flow fluctuations and would have affected the livelihoods of the farmers dependent on Chalakudy for irrigation. The report talks about the attempt made by the Kerala State Centre to improve the water management at the Chalakudy River Diversion Scheme (CRDS), through a participatory approach and has tried to promote farmstead level water conservation. This is expected to resolve the conflict among the beneficiaries of the CRDS.
The report is the outcome of the working group set by the Forum to develop a framework, which can act as an instrument for conflict resolution and conflict prevention. The Forum believes that the current legal and institutional set-up does not take into account the bio-physical and socio-cultural peculiarities of water. The alternate framework proposed by the working group talks about these aspects, including the discourse around right to water and equity, principles and doctrines of decentralised and participatory form of governance and management, subsidiarity and trusteeship.
The Forum has made a continuous effort to document the various types of conflicts talking place across India and at various levels. Through its established research centre in Odisha, the Forum brought out the various conflicts, both existing and emerging. The process of documenting conflicts in Odisha involved a host of activities and instruments, which led to the identification of 19 important case studies in the state. These are centred on dams, displacement, diversions, pollution and conflicts due to water sharing. The interesting part of this compendium is that the case studies have been written by non-academicians, each author bringing their own emphasis to the case study.